Mar 26, 2013

Merge Statement in SQL Server

MERGE feature is introduced by Microsoft from SQL Server 2008 onwards.

MERGE statement allows you to perform INSERT, UPDATE & DELETE command with a single statement, and so is very efficient way to perform multiple DML operations.

In earlier version of SQL Server, we had to write multiple DML statements for INSERT, UPDATE & DELETE.

Let's take an example to understand how MERGE statement works.

In the below example we are updating the data from source table data to target table.

For this we are going to write MERGE statement, that would be performing INSERT, UPDATE & DELETE with a single MERGE statement

MERGE statement performing below operations
  • UPDATE: If id matched and name not matched, updating name in target table from source table.
  • INSERT: If id not matched in target table inserting row from source table to target table
  • DELETE: If id in target table not matched with source table, deleting row from target table

declare @source table( id int, name varchar(50))
declare @target table( id int, name varchar(50), status varchar(10))

insert into @source
values (1, 'abc'), (2,'pqr' ), (3, 'xyz')
insert into @target(id, name)
values (1, 'abc'), (2,'sdfdf'), (4, 'abc')

select * from @target

merge @target as a
using (
    select * from @source
) as b on =
when matched and<> then update set =, a.status = 'updated'
when not matched by target then insert (id, name, status) values (,, 'inserted')
when not matched by source then delete;

select * from @target
Merge Output

Let's Compare the data of target table before and after merge statement.
  • Name updated with id 2
  • Row inserted with id 3
  • Row deleted with id 4

    Choose :
  • OR
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